Collections and Business Functions 

A series or collectionbased function is one that operates on a group of values. The values are stored in a collection called an array.
The AVERAGE function calculates the average or mean value of a group of values. It can take the sum of the cells involved (you don't need to calculate the sum first), divide the result by the number of values involved, and produce the result. We will use the AVERAGE function to get the average grade for each student's grade.


The Maximum in a Series 
The MAX function is used to get highest of a series of value. 
Practical Learning: Finding the Maximum Value of a Series 

Counting the Number of Numeric Values in a Series 
Imagine you want to perform some type of counting in a series of cells, Microsoft Excel provides various functions used to count items in a collection. Everything depends on what and/or how you want to count. The COUNT function counts the number of cells that contain numbers in the range or group of cells involved in a collection. 
Counting the Number of NonEmpty Cells in a Series 
While the COUNT function counts the numbers, the COUNTA function counts the number of nonempty cells (regardless of what is in those cells, as long as they contain something) in the cells involved. 
Business Functions 
Introduction 
An asset is an object of value. It could be a person, a car, a piece of jewelry, a refrigerator. Anything that has a value is an asset. In the accounting world, an asset is a piece of/or property whose life span can be projected, estimated, or evaluated. As days, months or years go by, the value of such an asset degrade. 
The Double Declining Balance 
The Double Declining Balance is a method used to calculate the depreciating value of an asset. To get it, you can use the DDB function whose syntax is: DDB(cost, salvage, life, period, factor) The first argument, cost, represents the initial value of the item and it is required. The salvage argument is the estimated value of the asset when it will have lost all its productive value. This argument also is required. The cost and the salvage values must be given in their monetary values. The value of life is the length of the lifetime of the item; this could be the number of months for a car or the number of years for a house, for example. The period is a factor for which the depreciation is calculated. It must be in the same unit as the life argument. For the Double Declining Balance, this period argument is usually 2. 
Practical Learning: Calculating the DoubleDecliningBalance 

The Straight Line Depreciation 
Microsoft Excel provides another method used to calculate the depreciation of an item. This time, the depreciation is considered on one period of the life of the item. The function used is SLN and its syntax is: SLN(cost, salvage, life); The cost argument is the original amount paid for an item (refrigerator, mechanics toolbox, highvolume printer, etc). The salvage, also called the scrap value, is the value that the item will have (or is having) at the end of Life. The life argument represents the period during which the asset is (or was) useful; it is usually measured in years. 
Practical Learning: Calculating the DoubleDecliningBalance 

The Sum of the Years' Digits 
The SumOfTheYears’Digits provides another method
for calculating the depreciation of an item. Imagine that a restaurant bought a commercial refrigerator (“cold chamber”) for $18,000 and wants to estimate its depreciation after 5 years. Each year is assigned a number, also called a tag, using a consecutive
count. This means that the first year is appended 1, the second is 2, etc. This way, the depreciation is not uniformly applied to all years. This is equivalent to 1. As you can see, the first year would have the lowest divident (1/15 ≈ 0.0067) and the last year would have the highest (5/15 ≈ 0.33).
Overall, Microsoft Office uses the following formula to calculate an item depreciation using the SumOfTheYears'Digits: The function used to calculate the depreciation of an asset using the sum of the years' digits is called SYD and its syntax is: SYD(cost, salvage, life, period) The cost argument is the original value of the item; in our example, this would be $18,000. The
salvage parameter is the value the asset would have (or has) at the end of its useful life. The
life is the number of years the asset would have a useful life
(because assets are usually evaluated in terms of years instead of
months). The period parameter is the particular period or rank of a Life
portion. For example, if the life of the depreciation is set to 5 (years), the
period could be any number between 1 and 5. If set to 1, the depreciation would be calculated for the first year. If the Period is set to 4, the depreciation would calculated for the 4th year. You can also set the
period to a value higher than life. For example, if life is set to 5 but you pass 8 for the
period, the depreciation would be calculated for the 8th year. If the asset is worthless in the 8th year, the depreciation would be 0. 
Practical Learning: Calculating the Depreciation Using SYD 

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